Chemical fertilisers (refresher)

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Muhammad Arif Khan
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Chemical fertilisers (refresher)

Post by Muhammad Arif Khan » July 8th, 2015, 11:02 am

This is basically for our friends new to gardening and refreshers for others and is open for discussion.


Fertiliser
Plant Food
Basic intake is through ROOTS, it can also absorb some through leaves.
Foliar feeding is resorted to as a booster or when the roots are not performing well.
All plant foods organic or inorganic are taken up by the plant as inorganic chemicals.
The organic fertilisers take longer time to break up in to absorbable form so are longer lasting on the other hand water soluble fertilisers (commonly used for containers) get leeched down in soil to an in-accessible depth. The granular forms are in-between.
The organic fertilisers are also good soil amenders.

The requirement of plant is divided into MACRO and MICRO nutrients.
The elements required in larger quantity are macro nutrients. These are Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium (commonly referred as N P K).
Micro nutrients are essential but required in very small quantity. These are Sulphur, Magnesium, Iron, Copper, Zinc, Boron, Borax, and Molybdenum etc.
Most soils have adequate micronutrients and some inorganic fertilisers also have them as impurity. The organic fertilisers are the end product of plants so they have all, a plant requires.

REQUIREMENT OF PLANTS

BASED ON COMPOSITION OF PLANTS; plants use 13-19 parts of P or an average of about 16 parts for every 100 parts of N, or 6 times more N than P. Plants use about 45-80 parts of K or an average of about 62 parts for every 100 parts of N, or about 3/5 as much K as N, and so on.,

Nitrogen = 100
Phosphorus = 13-19
Potassium = 45-80
Range of NPK = 10 – 1.3 – 4.5 to 10 – 1.9 - 8


Almost all plants have their own choice of food, qualitatively/quantitatively. You have a choice of formulating your own mixture or buy one of the readymade mixtures at10-100times the cost.


FERTILISERS
Nitrogen phosphorus Potash Sulpher
Name N% P% K% S%

Urea 46N
Ca. Ammonium Nitrate 26N
Ammonium Sulphate 21N 24S
DAP 18N 46P
Nitro Phos 22N 20P
Sing Phos 18P
Trip Phos 46P
Pot Sulf 50K 24S
Pot Nitrate 20N 46K
NPK 10 to 17N 10 to 17P 10 to 17K
Using the above basic available fertilisers you can formulate any NPK ratio you want

REQUIREMENT OF DIFFERENT PLANTS
Relative requirement of nutrients of plants

I gave Nitrogen, because it's the largest nutrient component, the value of 100. Other nutrients are listed as a weight percentage of N.
N 100
P 13-19 (16) 1/6
K 45-80 (62) 3/5
S 6-9 (8) 1/12
Mg 5-15 (10) 1/10
Ca 5-15 (10) 1/10
Fe 0.7
Mn 0.4
B(oron) 0.2
Zn 0.06
Cu 0.03
Cl 0.03
M(olybden) 0.003
To read the chart: P - plants use 13-19 parts of P or an average of about 16 parts for every 100 parts of N, or 6 times more N than P. Plants use about 45-80 parts of K or an average of about 62 parts for every 100 parts of N, or about 3/5 as much K as N, and so on.


AMARYLLIS
Seedlings NPK 4-1-4 50 PPM N Dilution (PPM = parts per million basic Nitrogen)
Pot.M .75Kg
NP 0.5Kg in 10 L (Stock) 15cc in 10 L
Ca. Amm. Nit. 1Kg
Mature NPK (2-1-2)
Pot. M 0.5Kg
NP 1Kg in 20 L 500cc in 10L (can)
C A N 0.5Kg
Mixture 2.Kg =N P K 14-8-14 %

Roses NPK 4-3-2
Pot.M 0.4 Kg
N P 1.5 Kg in 20 L 200cc in 10 L / Sq.M= 4.6gm N/ 5 times a year
C A N 0.5Kg

Gerbera NPK 1-2-4
N Ph. 1Kg
S Ph. 1Kg. in 10 L. 100cc stock in 10 L =220 PPM N(pot)
Pot.M 1.5Kg 2gm N/M Sq.
GRAPES
Early spring NPK 10-10-10 200 GM/plant

PAPAYA
Pre-planting NPK 12-15-10 125 GM/M2
Early spring // 10-10-10 annually 100GM N/group

Mulberry early spring High N water well during fruiting


CITRUS NPK 1-1-1
Pot. Sulph. 0.5Kg
Nit. Pho. 1 Kg
PLANTING APPLICATIONS N / YEAR MIXTURE/application
1St year 6 70 – 140 gm 80 – 150 gm
2nd Year 6 140 – 280 160 – 320
3rd Year 6 210 – 420 250 – 500
4th Year 6 375 – 450 400 – 500
5th Year onwards 6 450 – 600 500 – 650
Spread from drip line of foliage to one foot per year of age of plant up to 10 feet
Add 250 GM Mag. Sulphate /plant

Spray 10% zinc sulphate5% hydrated fresh lime

Guavas are fast growers and heavy feeders, and benefit from regular applications of fertilizer. Mature trees may require as much as 1/2 pound actual nitrogen per year. Apply fertilizer monthly, just prior to heavy pruning.
Bananas: Their rapid growth rate make bananas heavy feeders. During warm weather, apply a balanced fertilizer once a month--a 8:10:8 NPK fertilizer appears to be adequate. A mature plant may require as much as 1-1/2 to 2 pounds of the above fertilizer each month. Young plants need a quarter to a third as much. Spread the fertilizer evenly around the plant in a circle extending 4 - 8 feet from the trunk. Do not allow the fertilizer to come in contact with the trunk. Feed container container plants on the same monthly schedule using about half the rate for outside plants.
Papaya: The fast-growing papaya requires regular applications of nitrogen fertilizers but the exact rates have not been established. Feed monthly and adjust according to the plant's response. They can take fairly hot organic fertilizing such as chicken manure if used with deep irrigation after warm weather has started. Phosphorus deficiency casuses dark green foliage with a reddish-purple discoloration of leaf veins and stalks
Tamarind: The tamarind is not very demanding in its nutritional requirements. Young trees should be fertilized every 2 - 3 months with a 6-6-3 NPK or similar analysis fertilizer. Apply 1/4 lb. and gradually increase to about 1/2 lb. Thereafter, young trees should receive 1/2 lb. per application, per year of tree age, 3 - 4 times a year. Bearing trees can be fertilized with 8-3-9 NPK or similar analysis, at rates of about 1/2 lb. per application per year of tree age. Microelements, particularly iron may be required for trees in alkaline soils.


Annuals NPK = 1-2-1 + micro-nutrients
N Ph. 1Kg
S Ph. 1Kg In 20 L. 200cc Stock in 10 L = 220 PPM N (for pots)
Pot. Sul. 0.5Kg


TOMATO
Pre-planting NPK 5-7-4 100gm/m2 PH6.5-7
Pre-fruiting NPK 10-4-6 20-30 GM/plant

SPRAY Folier

Pot Nitrate 2%
Urea 2%
Fe. Sulf 2%
Mag Sulf 0.2%

What I use

Lawns
Ratio; 29-6-12 (4-1-2)
Requirement 450 Gm N/1000 sft
60 Gm Fe./1000sft

Mix N P K
Urea 4KG = 1850N
DAP 1KG =180N 460P
Pot M 2KG = 920K
FE 275Gm

Mix 7KG = 2030N + 460P + 920K

APPLY TWICE A YEAR. MARCH AND SEPTEMBER

GENERAL PURPOSE FLOWER BEDS & Amaryllis

My fertilisers (I keep changing according to availability of basic fertilisers)

Mix A
Starter and finisher NPK 9.35 – 23.9 – 17.3
50<100 PPM N Seedlings 400<800 PPM N for mature plants
DAP 12Kg
SOP 8
Fe Sul 2
Mag sul 1
Borax 50gm
Zinc Sul 25
Mng Di oxide 20
Copper Sul 10
Sod Molibedate 10

2 Kg in 10 L gives a stock of 18400PPM N,
Dilute according to requirement.


Mix B
Growing period NPK 14.4 – 6.4 – 14.3
400>800 PPM N or
Nitro Phos 9Kg
SOP 8
CAN 8
Micro nutrients 3.1
As above

2 Kg in 10 L gives a stock of 29000 PPM N
Dilute according to requirement

275Gm of mixture per 100 sq foot on preparation of beds.


If you're still awake - thanks for reading. It makes me feel like the effort was worth it. Let me know what you think - please.
Arif

isaeed
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Re: Chemical fertilisers (refresher)

Post by isaeed » July 8th, 2015, 12:48 pm

Does the NPK ratio needs to be varied during the planting,growth and flowering/fruiting stages ?Please provide guidance
Irfan Saeed

Muhammad Arif Khan
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Re: Chemical fertilisers (refresher)

Post by Muhammad Arif Khan » July 9th, 2015, 11:50 am

isaeed wrote:Does the NPK ratio needs to be varied during the planting,growth and flowering/fruiting stages ?Please provide guidance
Irfan Saeed
As given in detail above Mix A is for early stage of seedlings and also for near blooming/fruiting.
Mix B is for the in-between growing period.
For beginners Mix B or any balanced (equal NPK) fertiliser is good enough.

isaeed
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Re: Chemical fertilisers (refresher)

Post by isaeed » July 9th, 2015, 12:03 pm

.Choice of fertilizers,when to use, how to use has always been a difficult subject for amateur gardners to comprehend Thankyou for sharing extremely useful info with such clarity
Irfan Saeed

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Re: Chemical fertilisers (refresher)

Post by sage » July 12th, 2015, 7:01 pm

Thanks for sharing such valueable information, i was looking for the same. Though havnt been able to make proper understanding yet. These ratios are really confusing...

Muhammad Arif Khan
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Re: Chemical fertilisers (refresher)

Post by Muhammad Arif Khan » July 13th, 2015, 11:04 am

sage wrote:Thanks for sharing such valueable information, i was looking for the same. Though havnt been able to make proper understanding yet. These ratios are really confusing...
It is quiet simple
Simple ratio is qualitative, NPK 20-20-20, 17-17-17, 10-10-10 or 6-6-6 all have a simple ratio of 1-1-1 that is they have equal quantities of Nitrogen Phosphorus and Potassium.
If a packet mentions NPK 20-20-20 it means the mixture has quantitatively 20% Nitrogen, 20% phosphorus and 20% potassium, an NPK 8-4-12 on a packet means it has 8% nitrogen, 4% Phosphorus and 12% Potassium .
When working out the amount or dilution only Nitrogen is considered.
Say you want to feed a plant with simple ratio of NPK 2-1-3 and you have mixture of NPK 16-8-24, to work out the dilution, you have to decide how many parts per million of Nitrogen you want to feed. Normally you feed about 200 PPM N, so if you dissolve 100 grams of your NPK 16-8-24 mixture in 100cc of water you will have a solution which has 16 parts of N per 100 cc or 160000 parts per million of the stock now to make it 200 PPM you must dilute it 800 times,which comes to 10 CC in 8 Litters of water.
You can increase or decrease according to your requirement
Arif

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Re: Chemical fertilisers (refresher)

Post by sage » July 13th, 2015, 3:56 pm

Waow...calculations gettings interesting.....such a detailed elaboration...now i have got it, also i have saved this post.
I really apprecaite your effort and guidance, thank you so much..:-)

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Re: Chemical fertilisers (refresher)

Post by link2wonder » May 15th, 2016, 9:06 pm

Very informative, thank you

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Re: Chemical fertilisers (refresher)

Post by Muhammad Arif Khan » May 18th, 2016, 9:05 am

What I have said above is based on the little theoretical knowledge of mine but I believe there are many other micro and mini micro requirements of a plant best provided by what we call organic (of plant/animal origin).
Personally I use chemical fertilisers as a supplement to cow dung and leaf compost.
Arif

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Re: Chemical fertilisers (refresher)

Post by ranazahidali » July 9th, 2016, 8:45 pm

Thanks. Very very informative post. Please add same quality refresher for miconutrient.
Give some precious knowledge from your expertise.

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